The butterfly

School administration and teachers are getting acquainted with the content of the ‘‘Competences for Democratic Culture’’ model (Council of Europe, 2018) and are testing it on issues that concern their school.


  1. In groups of 4-6 members, member sit around tables. The trainer gives a brief historical review and introduction to the “Competences for democratic culture” (see the attachment or page 9 of the Handbook’s Introduction).
  2. To each group, the trainer gives a set of Competences for democratic culture cards (Worksheet 1). She then explains that in the activity that follows, we will test three models of learning theories: the Behavioral, where students apply rules; the Cognitive, where students follow instructions that offer them new experiences; and the Constructivist, where students are asked to be self-directed and use their imagination and skills. Education in democratic citizenship requires mainly the latter model. This depending on the age development of the students, since in addition to information, they also need the experience of democracy in school practice.
  3. Behaviorism (mainly teacher-centered approach to teaching and group functioning). Group members sort out the four cards with “Values, Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge and Critical Understanding” written in bold and underlined letters and place them in order. Each group is asked to rank the cards in one of the four categories. The trainer leaves the groups to work for a short time and announces that there are 3 cards in Values, as well as in Knowledge and Critical Understanding, 6 cards in Attitudes and 8 cards in Skills. Once the groups have finished, the trainer gives each group the butterfly model so that they can compare the results.
  4. Cognitive theories (teacher constructs learning scenarios, all students follow them). Group members remove the cards with the four titles and deal 3 cards randomly to each member. Each member, clockwise, presents the competence written on the card descriptively, without using the word(s) on the card. When the team finds the competence, the team moves on to the next player.
  5. Constructivism (teacher creates experiential and learning opportunities; children learn individually and collectively). Each team chooses two cards to give to the next team clockwise, so that each team has two new cards. The group chooses one of the cards they received and in 15 minutes, they are asked to demonstrate the skill on the card with role play lasting up to 1 minute. The teams present the roles in random order, while the plenary tries to find out what the skill is. The teams can use the butterfly for reference.
  6. The groups communicate to their members the issues facing refugee students in their school. They are then asked to choose one of the issues. Using the butterfly and indicators, they choose a maximum of two competences and two indicators for each.


Questionnaire at the end of the activity based on the expected learning outcomes.

Duration: 90 minutes


  1. Democratic culture competence cards.
  2. powerPoint presentation of the theory of “Capabilities of democratic civilization”.
  3. computer.
  4. projector.
  5. evaluation/assessment questionnaire.

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